Retain the standard of sound words which you have heard from me, in the faith and love which are in Christ Jesus"
(2 Timothy 1:13, NASB)


What is penal substitution theory?

Basically, penal substitution theory (PST) is the idea that Jesus took the place (substituted Himself) of sinners when He died. The doctrine suggests that God's full wrath against sin, which was directed at sinners, was instead poured out fully upon Jesus, who suffered in man's place. One variation of this doctrine teaches that God's wrath was fully executed against the physical body of Jesus. Another variation suggests that God's wrath manifested fully in the spiritual separation between the Father and the Son. A third variation says the soul of Jesus was cast into hell and given into the power of Satan for torment. Yet another variation suggests that Jesus had two spirits (a human spirit and a divine spirit), one of which suffered and the other did not. PST requires all the sins of mankind, including the legal guilt, to be imputed to Jesus so that He would be literally guilty of all those sins, invoking God's full wrath against Himself. This doctrine, however, contradicts what the Bible actually says on these matters. The purpose of this section of this web site is to expose some of the errors of PST so that the discerning Christian can fully appreciate and better understand the Bible's clear teachings on how God reconciles man to Himself.

Articles by David F. Sims

Why I Am Interested In PST
Brief introduction to Penal Substitution Theory
Atonement Theories (powerpoint)
My first article to Allan Turner on substitution theory
Brother Turner's response to my first article
My rebuttal to Turner's response
Did God Forsake Jesus On the Cross?
Did Jesus Go To Hell?
The Garbage Man: An Analogous Exposition of Isaiah 53
Articles by Maurice Barnett

The Substitution Theory
The Intermediate State of the Dead
The Scapegoat
Was Jesus Abandoned?
Were There Two Spirits in Jesus?

Articles by Others

Redemption In Christ by J.W. McGarvey